What is stopping in speech?

Do you have students who struggle to pronounce certain sounds by making substitutions? The stopping phonological process is when a child produces a stop consonant /p, b, t, d, k, or g/ in place of a fricative /f, v, th, s, z, sh, ch/ or an affricate sound /j/.

Stopping is considered a normal phonological process that is typically eliminated between of ages of 3-5 years old.

stopping-phonological-process
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Substitution: Stopping Phonological Process

Stopping is when one fricative or affricate sound is substituted for a stop sound. See the chart below:

Source: Bowen, C. (2011). Communication disorders glossary. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=14&Itemid=123 on [Nov., 18, 2019].
StoppingWord
punsun
toesew
topshop
pokejoke
datthat

Manner of Articulation

There are five types of manners of articulation. Manner identifies the contact that is made between two articulators. The five types are:

  1. plosive
  2. nasal
  3. fricative
  4. affricate
  5. approximant

The nasals, fricatives, affricates, and approximates are all sounds that can be sustained for breath. Plosives, however, cannot be sustained. They instead are when there is a complete stopping of the airflow, which is also known as stops. See the chart below:

Source: https://www.sltinfo.com/phon101-stopping/

Age of Elimination

Stopping is considered a normal phonological process that children use to learn the English language. Normally stops are the first speech sounds to develop. Children should eliminate stopping of /f, s/ by the age of 3;00, /v, z/ by the age of 3;06, /ʃ, ʧ, ʤ/ by the age of 4;06, and /θ, ð/ by the age of 5;00. See table below.

stoppingage of elimination
/f/, /s/3;00
/v/, /z/3;06
/ʃ/, /ʧ/, /ʤ/4;06
/θ/, /ð/5;00

Even though stopping of consonants is typical, it is rare to have stopping of approximants /w, l, r/. Furthermore, stopping of nasals can be categorized as denasalization instead of stopping. Most of the time stopping is described as stopping of fricatives or affricates.

Practice Stopping Phonological Process with Minimal Pairs Free Flashcards

Give your students practice of reducing the stopping phonological process through auditory bombardment and minimal pairs flashcards.

This freebie includes all of the following:

  • Initial /f/ vs /p/ 24 sets
  • Initial /s/ vs /t/ 24 sets
  • Initial /sh/ vs /t/ 24 sets
  • Initial /ch/ vs /t/ 24 sets
  • Initial /th/ vs /t/ 24 sets
  • Initial /th/ vs /p/ 18 sets
  • 10 auditory bombardment words per page
  • real-life photos of minimal pair words

Grab your Stopping Phonological Process Minimal Pairs Freebie!

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    Initial /f/ vs /p/ Minimal Pairs

    /f//p/
    1fanpan
    2fastpast
    3footput
    4fadepaid
    5forkpork
    6facepace
    7feelpeel
    8feetpeat
    9feepea
    10figpig
    11finepine
    12fleasplease
    13foolpool
    14foundpound
    15fromprom
    16fullpull
    17funpun
    18failpail
    19fairpair
    20fatpat
    21feltpelt
    22filepile
    23fillpill
    24firmperm

    Initial /s/ vs /t/ Minimal Pairs

    /s//t/
    1sewtoe
    2seetea
    3Suetwo
    4sunton
    5selltell
    6soretore
    7subtub
    8siptip
    9sourtower
    10sacktack
    11seatea
    12surfturf
    13sicktick
    14socktock
    15sucktuck
    16saptap
    17sidetide
    18soytoy
    19seamteam
    20sightie
    21sighttight
    22suittoot
    23seatteat
    24celltell

    Initial /sh/ vs /t/ Minimal Pairs

    /sh//t/
    1shytie
    2shoetwo
    3showtoe
    4shapetape
    5shoptop
    6shawltall
    7shacktack
    8shaketake
    9shetea
    10shelltell
    11shiptip
    12shocktalk
    13showtow
    14shoottoot
    15shedTed
    16shintin
    17sharetear
    18shinytiny
    19shagtag
    20shametame
    21sheetteat
    22shoretore
    23shocktalk
    24sharptarp

    Initial /ch/ vs /t/ Minimal Pairs

    /ch//t/
    1cheesetease
    2chesttest
    3chewtwo
    4childtiled
    5chiptip
    6chosetoes
    7chairtear
    8chilltill
    9chimetime
    10chintin
    11choptop
    12choretour
    13churnturn
    14chaptap
    15charttart
    16chattat
    17cheatteat
    18cheekteak
    19cheertear
    20chicktick
    21chartar
    22chubbytubby
    23chugtug
    24chuffedtuft

    Initial /th/ vs /t/ Minimal Pairs

    /th//t/
    1thanktank
    2thoughttaught
    3thintin
    4throughtrue
    5thightie
    6threetree
    7thicktick
    8thawtaw
    9thorntorn
    10thesetease
    11thosetoes
    12theretear
    13thantan
    14thenten
    15thoughtoe
    16thumbtum
    17thicktick
    18themeteam
    19thinkertinker
    20throwtow
    21threadtread
    22thongstongs
    23throwtoe
    24thugtug

    Initial /th/ vs /p/ Minimal Pairs

    /th//p/
    1thighpie
    2thugpug
    3thinpen
    4thickpick
    5thinkpink
    6thawpaw
    7thatchpatch
    8thesepeas
    9thosepose
    10theypay
    11thatpat
    12thanpan
    13throwPoe
    14chugpug
    15theepea
    16thumppump
    17thenpen
    18thinpin

    Stopping Phonological Process of Initial and Final Consonants

    Stopping can occur in both initial or final consonant positions. For example, an initial consonant stop of the word “far” would be “tar”. In the example above the initial consonant fricative /f/ is replaced with an initial consonant stop /t/. Additional examples of initial stopping include the following.

    fan/fæn//tæn/
    van/væn//pæn/
    fun/fʌn//tʌn/
    sin/sɪn//pɪn/

    The following are examples of final consonant stopping, which is when a final affricate or fricative becomes at stop at the end of a word.

    comb/kəʊm//kəʊb/
    patch/pæʧ//pæt/
    moth/mɒθ//mɒt/

    What are all the Types of Phonological Processes?

    Phonological processes are the typical errors that children make in order to help them learn to speak. These typical errors can be further divided down into three main categories: substitution, assimilation, and syllable structure. Want to know more about these three categories? Be sure to learn about all of the typical and atypical phonological processes and don’t forget to download the handy chart.

    In Conclusion

    Stopping occurs when a child is using the typical phonological process of learning speech. Stopping is when the child replaces a stop /p, b, t, d, k, or g/ in place of a fricative /f, v, th, s, z, sh, ch/ or an affricate sound /j/ in the initial or final consonant positions. For example, “fan” becomes “tan” or “path” becomes “pat”.

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